The life cycle of plants and trees starts with the germination of seeds. Plants and trees produce seeds and seeds develop into new plants . The cycle thus continues keeping the species alive and continuing.
Germination is defineds as sprouting of seeds, a sprout, a spore, or additional reproductive body, regularly done after a period of dormancy.
Availability of water, health of the seeds, time, temperature and heat, presence of oxygen, and exposures to light play an important role in the germination process.
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The initial step in the development of seed germination is to absorb water or imbibition The seed absorbs water and as a result it swells. The swelling of seed causes the seed coat to rupture and allows the radicles to move downward forming the root.
When the seed absorbs water, it also respires. While in the beginning the respiration is anaerobic and later it becomes aerobic.
Seeds germination is seen when the seed starts growing its shoots and roots.The seed encloses a baby plant with its cotyledons. The cotyledons store food for the baby plant inside the seed and provides nutrients till the seed coat ruptures and the plant is capable enough of drawing nutrients from the soil and the surroundings.
The first thing to come out is the main root. The skin or seed coat starts to split and the tiny shoot straightens, carrying the cotyledons with it. This is called radicle or the main root which grows bigger. Root hairs appear as the growth takes place. Gradually, first leaves called plumule starts growing which forms the shoot in initial stages. To grow, the seed's growing conditions usually have to be damp, warm, and dark, with moderate soil. A dry seed will stay dormant unless the conditions are favorable. Later, seeds germinate supporting a new life.