In general there are two types of deciduous forests namely the temperate deciduous forests and tropical deciduous forests. Deciduous forests predominantly have trees with broad leaves and temperate deciduous forests are located in the areas that has moderate rainfall and temperature and with cold winters. The tropical deciduous forests shed leaves during December (in Northern Hemisphere) as water becomes scarce.
Introduction to tropical deciduous forests in India
Deciduous forests in India are of two types namely the tropical deciduous forests and dry deciduous forests. Tropical deciduous forests in India are also known as Monsoon forests as they form natural cover in almost all regions of India. These type of forests accounts for about more than the half area of total forest area in India. Tropical deciduous forests in India are found in an area that receives that annual rainfall of about 100 to 200 cms, with a distinct rainy and dry and seasons.
Tropical deciduous forests in India occur on the wet western side of Deccan Plateau, the north eastern region of Deccan Plateau, and in lower slopes of Himalayas, on Siwalik Hills starting in Jammu in west to the West Bengal in east. They also cover parts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkand, Karnataka, and Kerala.
The principal trees found in tropical deciduous forests in India are teak, sandalwood, mahua, sal, khair, mango, wattle and bamboo, jackfruit, semal, myrobalan, arjun, sisasm, and the banyan tree. They shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks during the dry season, generally during the months March to May, in order to prevent the loss of water in the form of moisture through the process of transpiration.
The salient features of tropical deciduous forests in India are they are located in the areas with rainfall of 100 to 200 cms and shedding of their leaves.