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Hybridization Chemistry

Hybridization is mixing up of energies of atomic orbitals of comparable energy centered on same atom and their redistribution into equal number of hybrid orbitals of similar energy and identical shape.

Important points regarding hybridization

  1. Hybridization is a purely hypothetical concept.
  2. The orbitals undergoing hybridization should have almost similar energies.
  3. An empty half filled or fully filled orbital can involve in hybridization.
  4. If n number of orbitals are hybridizing they will result into n hybridized orbitals.
  5. Hybridized orbitals have better overlapping ability hence form strong bonds.
  6. Only $\sigma$ bond formation is possible by hybridized orbitals, they are unable to form $\pi$ bonding.
The concept of atomic orbital should apply also to polyatomic molecules. However a satisfactory bonding scheme must account for molecular geometry. The hybridization of atomic orbitals are shown below.
Hybrid Orbitals       

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What is Hybridization in Chemistry?

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In sp3 hybridization the 2s orbital is mixed with all three of the 2p orbitals to give a set of four sp3 hybrid orbitals. The number of hybrid orbitals must equal the number of original atomic orbitals used for mixing. The hybrid orbitals will each have the same energy but will be different in energy from the original atomic orbitals. 

In sp3 hybridization one s and three p valence atomic orbitals mix up together to form a new set of our sp3 hybrid orbitals. These are directed towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron and the angle between them is 109o29'

SP3 Hybridization

The summary of sp3 hybridization is given below.

Properties  sp
Geometry Tetrahedral 
 Bond angle  109o28'
Free p orbitals  Nil 
 Bonds formed  $\sigma$ bonds
 Rotation of bonds Free rotation about $\sigma$ bond. 
 Possibility of isomerism  Structural isomerism
 % of s character and % of p character  25% s character and 75% p character


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