Hybridization is mixing up of energies of atomic orbitals of comparable energy centered on same atom and their redistribution into equal number of hybrid orbitals of similar energy and identical shape.
Important points regarding hybridization
Hybridization is a purely hypothetical concept.
The orbitals undergoing hybridization should have almost similar energies.
An empty half filled or fully filled orbital can involve in hybridization.
If n number of orbitals are hybridizing they will result into n hybridized orbitals.
Hybridized orbitals have better overlapping ability hence form strong bonds.
Only $\sigma$ bond formation is possible by hybridized orbitals, they are unable to form $\pi$ bonding.
The concept of atomic orbital should apply also to polyatomic molecules. However a satisfactory bonding scheme must account for molecular geometry. The hybridization of atomic orbitals are shown below.
In sp3 hybridization the 2s orbital is mixed with all three of the 2p orbitals to give a set of four sp3 hybrid orbitals. The number of hybrid orbitals must equal the number of original atomic orbitals used for mixing. The hybrid orbitals will each have the same energy but will be different in energy from the original atomic orbitals.
hybridization one s and three p valence atomic orbitals mix up together to form a new set of our sp3
hybrid orbitals. These are directed towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron and the angle between them is 109o
The summary of sp3
hybridization is given below.
| Bond angle
|Free p orbitals
| Bonds formed
|| $\sigma$ bonds
| Rotation of bonds
||Free rotation about $\sigma$ bond.
| Possibility of isomerism
|| Structural isomerism
| % of s character and % of p character
|| 25% s character and 75% p character