In the world of chemistry, an electrolyte is a substance having the free ions so that the substance is electrical conductor. We can say that any substance, which furnishes ions in the solution, is called the electrolyte.
Due to the presence of free ions some of the solutions can pass electricity through them. As we can say that the pure distilled water is not an electrolyte but if we add some table salt, it becomes an electrolyte and the electric current pass through it. The electrolyte is an ionic solution but the electrolytes can also be in molten and in the solid state.
"The electrolytes are the solution of acids, bases or slats. Even some of the gases are also acts as the electrolytes under some special conditions such as high temperature and low pressure."
Dissolution of DNA, polypeptides, synthetic polymers are also be the electrolytes. Electrolytic solution can be formed when a salt is placed into a solvent and forms the solution and then furnish ions in the solution.
For example, if table salt NaCl is added in the water, it becomes the electrolyte as the reaction given below.
NaCl(s) $\rightarrow$ Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
Here we observe that NaCl furnish sodium ion and the chloride ions to the solution, which helps to flow the electric current through them. Another example of the electrolyte is carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water to produce a solution which contains hydronium, carbonate, and hydrogen carbonate ions. Remember that the molten salts can also be the electrolytes. There are two type of the electrolytes: one is the weak electrolytes and the other is strong electrolytes. The weak electrolytes are the electrolytes, which do not dissociate completely in the solution. The solution contains both the ions and the molecules. The strong electrolytes are the electrolytes, which dissociates completely in the solution. The solution contains only the ions. These ions are the good conductors of the electricity and they can pass the electric current very easily through them.
The following are few examples of electrolytes