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Impact of Population Growth

India is the best country to study the consequences of over population. Geometric growth in population has pushed our country into population explosion leading to number of serious consequences. Some of them are:

  • Decreased availability of food and clothing.
  • Decreased per capita food availability despite phenomenal increase in their production.
  • Decreased per capita GMP and reduced standard of living due to ever increasing population.
  • Increased pressure on resources like land, water, natural forests, animals etc. leading to many far reaching effects like:

a) Fragmentation of land below the economic level.

b) Acute shortage of drinking and irrigation water.

c) Denudation of forest (Deforestation) to increase the area under agriculture.

d) Pollution of water, land, food materials etc.

  • Urbanistaion beyond a healthy developmental limit as more rural people shift to towns / cities in search of better work / earning. Urbanization has led to may problems such as

a) Increased housing problems in cities / towns.

b) Very high vehicular movement in cities / towns leading to accidents, pollution, etc.

c) Serious problem connected to vast urban waste generation and its disposal.

d) Serious drinking water shortages.

e) Unending demands for civic amenities like roads, transport, markets, etc.

  • Unemployment problems of serious dimension both in urban and rural areas leading to reduced per capita earning, poverty, etc.
  • Hunger deaths - because of reduced per capita food availability and poor distribution of food.
  • Acute shortage of medical facilities including qualified doctors, medicines, dispensaries, modern health care facilities etc - due to high population.
  • Shortage of education facilities including schools, colleges, qualified teachers.
  • Serious shortage of power and problems connected with its distribution.
  • Increased inflation.
  • Increased borrowings from international organisations.
  • Reduced care of young ones leading to increased child health problems as well as vulnerability of children to many diseases.
  • Reduced health care to mothers.
  • Difficulties encountered in implementation of all national and state developmental programmes.
  • Increased government expenditure.
  • Increased density of population.

In India, the over population has engulfed almost all our achievements in industrial growth, agricultural production, supporting services like medical care, housing, transport, education, banking etc. It has put serious pressures on every sector of our economy and every section of society. Almost all our national problems can be traced back to have their roots in overgrowing population.

At global level, China and India are facing overpopulation issues of highest magnitude. But rate of growth of population has reduced in China substantially in recent years. In India, the rate of growth of population has reduced in some states - while in others it is yet to be reduced. However, rate of growth may not be the only yard stick to evaluate overpopulation. Total available population and density of population are important features to decide whether rate of increase in population really affects the country's progress. For E.g., in many African countries like Madagascar, Mozambique, Somalia, Zambia, Angola, Chad, Gabon, Botswana, Namibia, the growth rate is double than that in India. But, they are not yet overpopulated because their population density is less than 100 (in few countries it is as low as

6 - 7 per sq. km - while in India, it is 324).

comparative age sex pyramid

Comparative Age-Sex Pyramids for India: (a) Year 1971 (b) Year 1991


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