India is the best country to study the consequences of over population. Geometric growth in population has pushed our country into population explosion leading to number of serious consequences. Some of them are:
a) Fragmentation of land below the economic level.
b) Acute shortage of drinking and irrigation water.
c) Denudation of forest (Deforestation) to increase the area under agriculture.
d) Pollution of water, land, food materials etc.
a) Increased housing problems in cities / towns.
b) Very high vehicular movement in cities / towns leading to accidents, pollution, etc.
c) Serious problem connected to vast urban waste generation and its disposal.
d) Serious drinking water shortages.
e) Unending demands for civic amenities like roads, transport, markets, etc.
In India, the over population has engulfed almost all our achievements in industrial growth, agricultural production, supporting services like medical care, housing, transport, education, banking etc. It has put serious pressures on every sector of our economy and every section of society. Almost all our national problems can be traced back to have their roots in overgrowing population.
At global level, China and India are facing overpopulation issues of highest magnitude. But rate of growth of population has reduced in China substantially in recent years. In India, the rate of growth of population has reduced in some states - while in others it is yet to be reduced. However, rate of growth may not be the only yard stick to evaluate overpopulation. Total available population and density of population are important features to decide whether rate of increase in population really affects the country's progress. For E.g., in many African countries like Madagascar, Mozambique, Somalia, Zambia, Angola, Chad, Gabon, Botswana, Namibia, the growth rate is double than that in India. But, they are not yet overpopulated because their population density is less than 100 (in few countries it is as low as
6 - 7 per sq. km - while in India, it is 324).
Comparative Age-Sex Pyramids for India: (a) Year 1971 (b) Year 1991