In ancient times, statistics was introduced due to the
administrative requirements of a firm or state. Statistical methods are the techniques which enable vast numerical data to systematically collected, managed and interpreted. It gives a comprehensible view to the data. It is the science of collecting,
presenting, analyzing and interpreting the data.
Nowadays, statistics is not just limited to management of data. Statistical methods are now applied in various fields such as physics, chemistry, economics, biology, business, finance, astronomy, medicine, sociology, psychology etc. There are perhaps no fields
left where statistics is not being applied. The methods of statistics that are applied in various other fields, are assumed to be included in applied statistics. We can say that applied statistics is the part of statistics that is used in other areas.
Measurements of Data in Applied Statistics
Nominal Measurement of Data
Nominal measurement measures qualitative data. It does not include numerical part of the data. Therefore, methods of numerical statistics can not be applied on it.Ordinal Measurement of Data
This type of measurements considers order of the data, such as: ranks. Numerical methods can not be applied in this type also.Interval Measurement of Data
Interval measurement is based upon scale intervals. It clarifies classes as well as the difference between classes. Zero is not included as a reference point in this type of measurement.Ratio Measurement of Data
This type of measurement of data focuses on ratios or comparison. Zero can be taken as a point of reference in this type. This is considered to be the best of all measurements.