Percent defines how a value is related to every hundred. It expresses a number as a part of hundred. Percentage of a number is expressed as the product of 100 and ratio of the number and total amount. This can be represented in the following way:

We can also define percent as

If we have to calculate percent fraction of a number, for example p % of x, then we simply remove percent (%) symbol and put 100 in denominator and replace the word "of" by multiplication (X) sign.

p % of x = $\frac{p}{100}$$\times x$

Let us see few examples demonstrating how to solve problems related to percentages.

Calculate 20% of 500.

20% of 500 = $\frac{20}{100}$$\times 500$

= $20 \times 5$

= 100

Example 2:

15% of a number is 480. Find the number.

Let the number be x.

According to the question:

15% of x = 480

$\frac{15}{100}$$\times x = 480$

$x$ = $\frac{480 \times 100}{15}$

x = 3200

The cost marked on a commodity was $\$$20. At the time of purchase of that commodity, sales tax was applied on it. The total bill came out to be $\$$22. Calculate the percent sales tax.

Sales tax = 22 - 20

= $\$$2

Let the percent sales tax be x % which is applied on $\$$ 20. Then,

2 = $x \times $$\frac{20}{100}$

x = $\frac{2 \times 100}{20}$

x = 10%

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