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Statistical Terms

There are many statistics used in evaluation and social science research. Descriptive and inferential are the main area of statistics. Descriptive statistics involve the tabulating, describing and depicting of collection of data.

Inferential statistics are a formalized body of techniques that infer the properties of a larger collection of data from the inspection of that collection. Below are some common terms used in statistics.

Arithmetic average, i.e. the sum of all the values divided by the number of observations.

The midpoint in a distribution having 50 % of the scores above it and 50 % of the scores below it.

The number that occurs most frequently in a distribution of scores.

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

Standard Deviation: Standard deviation helps create a more accurate picture of the distribution along the normal curve.

Frequency Tables: Frequency represent the simplest method for analyzing categorical data.

Bias: Bias is a systematic error.

Continuous Variable:
A variable that can take on any number of possible values.

Discrete Variable: If the value of a variable is assigned from a given set of values is called as discrete variable.

Inter-quartile Range: A measure of statistical dispersion being equal to the difference between the 3rd and 1st quartiles.

Correlation: A relationship between 2 variables.

Dependent variable:
A variable which is affected by other variables in the experiment.

Independent variable:
A variable is not being 
affected by other variables in the experiment.

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