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Science II

Chemical Reactions and Equations

     A physical change is one in which the shape, size, appearance or state, of a substance may alter, but its chemical composition remains same.A change in which the composition of a substance is altered is called as chemical change.

Acids, Bases and Salts

     Acids, bases and salts are three main categories of chemical compounds. These have certain definite properties which distinguish one class from the other.

Metals and Non-metals

     The progress of the civilization was first benchmarked by man's increasing knowledge and usage of metallic deposits in the earth's crust. Early man used stones, bones and wood to fulfill their requirements of hunting, cooking and building.

Carbon and its Compounds

     Carbon compounds are of a second type which can be prepared from minerals such as oxygen, halogens and metals.

Periodic Classification of Elements

     Initially scientists had classified elements into metal and non-metals. However, some elements possessed properties which could neither be classified as metals nor non-metals called metalloids.

Basics of Respiration

     Gaseous exchange involves movements of some specialised structures. The mechanism of taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide is called breathing.

Transportation

     The study of transport mechanisms in plants helps us to understand the uptake of the various types of substances and their passage through the plants.

Excretion

     Steam pressure makes the wheels of the engine move. As coal is burnt, smoke is emitted and ash is left behind in the furnace.

Control and Coordination

     As the complexity of the individuals, plants or animals increases the different cells and organs become separated from each other by greater distance.

Reproduction Index

     Reproduction is thus essential for continuation of the species. It ensures that the genetic material of one generation is transmitted to the next. Each generation also produces more offspring for the next generation.

Heredity and Evolution Index

     Heredity is the transmission of characteristics, physical or mental from parents to offspring that is, from one generation to the successive generation.

Reflection of light index

     Light does not require a material medium for its propagation. In a given medium light travels with a very high but finite velocity.

Refraction of Light

     The deviation in the path of light when it passes from one medium to another medium of different density is called refraction.

The Human Eye and the Colourful World

     The eye lens converges these light rays to form a real, inverted and diminished image on the retina. The light sensitive cells of the retina gets activated with the incidence of light and generate electric signals.

Electricity

     A conductor having excess electrons is said to be at a negative or at a lower potential and that having less electrons is said to be at a positive or at a higher potential.

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

     In a magnetic field, the magnetic dipole (Two equal and oppositely magnetised poles separated by a distance is referred to as magnetic dipole) experiences a turning force, which tends to align it parallel to the direction of the field.

Sources of Energy

     The term 'energy' used here has thus a slightly different meaning. The term 'energy' actually means 'the useful energy' or 'the energy that we can use'; for cooking, operating machines, to run vehicles and so on. And we get this useful energy only from specific sources, which we call 'sources of energy'

Our Environment

     The abiotic environment includes the air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere) and land (lithosphere). The biotic environment includes the plants, animals and the microbes.

Natural Resources and its Management

     All our natural resources which we manipulate to satisfy human needs come from the environment. These are air, water, soil, minerals, coal, petroleum, animals and plants.

 


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