The separation between the two opposite and equal electric charge is known as the electric dipole moment. It measures the polarity of the system. It is a vector quantity. And it is given as the product between the charge and distance of separation between the charges. The direction is given as from negative to positive charge. It is also named as the electric moment of a charge.
An electric dipole is a system consisting of two similar and opposite charges, which is separated by a small distance. Let consider two similar charges with opposite polarity -q and +q which is having the same energy and is separated by a distance of d. So the electric dipole is given as the product of the charge and the distance d. So the equation is given as,
p = qd