Human, common name given to any individual of the species Homo sapiens(scientific name for humans) and, by extension, to the entire species. The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. Human belong to the genus Homo, which first evolved at least 2.3 million to 2.5 million years ago. The earliest members of this genus differed from the australopiths in at least one important respect—they had larger brains than did their predecessors. Scientific classification of Species Homo Sapiens(scientific name for humans) belongs to genus Homo having class Mammalia and kingdom Animalia is shown below in given picture .
The evolution of Homo Sapiens(scientific name for humans) of genus Homo can be divided roughly into three periods:
1. Early Homo
2. Middle Homo
3. Late Homo( Modern Human)
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas and chimpanzees, but humans did not evolve from these apes: instead these apes share a common ancestor with modern humans. Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
Paleoanthropologists generally recognize two species of early Homo:
2. H. rudolfensis
H. habilis lived in eastern and possibly southern Africa between about 1.9 million and 1.6 million years ago, and maybe as early as 2.4 million years ago. Although H. habilis had very apelike body proportions. However, H. habilis had more modern-looking feet and hands capable of producing tools.
By about 1.9 million years ago, the period of middle Homo had begun in Africa. Until recently, paleoanthropologists recognized one species in this period, Homo erectus. Many now recognize three species of middle Homo:
1. H. ergaster
2. H. erectus
3. H. heidelbergensis.
Late Homo include Homo Sapiens (Scientific name of humans), Homo Neanderthal and other late homo populations. Other Homo Population include mainly Homo floresiensis. A research team digging in a cave, Liang Bua, uncovered the nearly complete skeleton of what appeared to be a miniature human that lived as recently as 18,000 years ago. The specimen, believed to be an adult female, was estimated to stand only about 1 m (3.3 ft) tall. Its brain, estimated at 380 cu cm (23 cu in), was as small as those of chimpanzees and the smallest australopiths. It had fairly large brow ridges, and its teeth were large relative to the rest of the skull. Despite being extremely small-brained, it apparently made simple stone tools. On the basis of these unique traits, the researchers assigned the skeleton to a new species, Homo floresiensis. All Homo Species are now extincted except Homo sapiens or Modern Human due to following reasons,
Humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and problem solving. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the hands for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species.